If Prequark Superstring Model cannot provide any additional insight more than other known theory or a combination of theories, it has no real value while it is true.Thus, why Prequark Superstring Model? Because, it provides the following additional insights.

- It contains and unifies mutually exclusive theories. Quark theory and traditional Superstring theory are mutually disconnected on the conceptual level, but Prequark Superstring Model unifies them. Quarks and leptons are superstrings in Prequark Superstring Model, and all quarks and leptons can be expressed in terms of Prequarks.
- Not only can Prequark Superstring theory duplicate the known results of other theories, but it provides simpler and better descriptions of nature, such as:
- Neutron decay.
- Muon or Tau decays.
- Proton decay or its non-decay.
- Fractional quantum Hall effect. Both Quark theory and Superstring theory cannot make any direct contribution on this.

- Prequark Superstring Model arise from Equation Zero which also give rise to a new Gravity theory, that is, the quantum theory and gravity are unified.
- Prequark Superstring Model makes contact with a new discipline (Artificial Life). That is, it shows that biological life could be the direct consequence of physics laws.

- Q: How prequark seats are arranged in space? If the seats are arranged in a straight line, it would means that color symmetry is broken. If they are arranged in a triangle with equal sides, then one cannot find any difference among 3 colors.

A:- Quark is a superstring. If quark has only two prequarks, it can only be a straight string. In Superstring theory, a superstring can be a straight string or a joined circle (triangle with equal sides). Only when quark has three prequarks, it can be a superstring.

Note 1: Traditional Superstring theory does not know the internal structure of quark, but Prequark Superstring theory does.

Note 2: Most of dynamic equations of Superstring theory works for prequark theory. - In prequark theory, quark is colored but has no intrinsic color. Quark has two forms in prequark representation, straight or circle. In the form of a circle, although quark is colored but which color state (red, yellow or blue) it is in cannot be known. Only when quark interacts with another quark, the circle form (having three quantum states) will collapse into a straight form which has a definite color state. This is called quantum collapse which is the direct consequence of quantum law.

Note 3: Because quarks are permanently confined, the circle state is always a virtue state.

Note 4: Because quark intrinsically can be any of the three colors, the uncertainty principle permits it to change to another color. But the color complementary rule forces its confined quark partner changing into a different color when one quark changes the color by quantum uncertainty. In Standard Model, this phenomenon is explained with a**gluon**system of SU(3) color symmetry.

Note 5: Quark colors are conserved in the prequark representation of neutron decay. That is, Prequark Superstring theory preserves the SU(3) color symmetry which is equivalent to the concept of**gluon**.

Note 6: Both quark colors and genecolors are attributes of prequark seats which are, in fact, space-time. That is, all particles (proton or quarks, etc) are deeply imbedded in or permanently confined to space-time.

Note 7: The prequark representation of proton or neutron is very much similar to glider. Gliders roam in a two-dimensional world sheet (see http://www.iewu.edu/Nfa.htm) which does not have the anti-particle world. On the contrary, protons or neutrons roam in a multi-dimensional world sheet (see question 6). Both particles and anti-particles are imbedded in this multi-dimensional world sheet. The internal structure of elementary particles has 7-dimensions (3 quark colors, 3 genecolors and one colorless color). That is, with the 4 visible space-time dimensions, the universe has a total of 11 (4 + 7) dimensions.

- Quark is a superstring. If quark has only two prequarks, it can only be a straight string. In Superstring theory, a superstring can be a straight string or a joined circle (triangle with equal sides). Only when quark has three prequarks, it can be a superstring.
- Q: In Standard Model, neutron decay is mediated via weak current (W- boson), and W boson has been observed. Why does W boson not appear in the prequark representation of neutron decay?

A: During the -(V, A) exchange,**this mixture is W boson**. Prequark model gives much more detailed and clear picture. - Q: Proton is not composite of only three quarks but includes gluons, spin, electric charges, weak charge, etc.

A: Spin and electric charges are carried by Angultron. The**gluons**are consequences of SU(3) color symmetry. As long as the SU(3) color symmetry is preserved in the Prequark theory, the gluons are imbedded in it, of course, with different expressions. - Q: Does prequark theory predict any new particles?

A: Prequark Superstring theory see quarks which are composites of prequarks. However, prequarks are not particles in the traditional sense, such as proton or quark. As for the traditional particles, prequark theory does not predict any new "elementary" particle. - Q: Is prequark a particle?

A: No. Prequark is not a particle in any sense. How can a vacuum (Vacutron) be a particle? Prequark itself is not even a superstring; quark is. Prequarks are attributes of the space-time world sheet. We can view Vacutron as the valley bottom of the space-time world sheet, Angultron the summit of the hill. When the two sections (two seats) of a space-time superstring lay on the summit of two hills and one lay on the bottom of the valley, this superstring is a up-quark. If the first section (seat) is on the bottom of the valley, it is a red up-quark, etc.. When all three sections (seats) of a space-time superstring lay on the summit of three hills, it is an electron. When all three sections of a space-time superstring lay on the bottom of three valleys, it is a neutrino. - Q: How can this space-time world sheet house three generations of particles?

A:

The space-time equation (Equation Zero) demands that time superstring (a time-sheet itself) to include the imaginary time. It also demands that time quanta cannot be reduced to zero length (a continuous point) because of being a superstring. That is, this time sheet is, in fact, a donut which has one hole at origin and another hole at infinity. See graph on the left.

Equation Zero again demands that this time quanta moves in an Archimedes spiral fashion to form a time cone which again is a donut. See graph on the right.That is, the space-time world sheet is formed by two donuts.

Every donut has the following topological properties:- It can be viewed as a ball with two punched holes (two poles). And it has two surfaces, the external ball surface and the internal ball surface. The internal ball surface could be hidden from view.
- There is a four (4) color theorem for balls. That is, all variations (or events) on ball surface can be identified with 4 colors. For a donut,
**three additonal colors**are needed for the internal ball surface.

The graph on the left shows the space-time world sheet. It can be viewed as a ball which contains two donuts. The tube itself is the first donut, and its internal surface contains three quark colors.

The tube "forms" a second donut, and its internal surface cannot truly be seen, contrary to the graph. The internal surface of this second donut contains three genecolors.

The visible space-time world sheet is the external ball surface which needs four (4) colors, the ordinary 4 space-time dimensions.

The holes link this world sheet to**Nothingness**which must also be counted as one dimension, the colorlessness demanded by the color complementary rule. Thus, the space-time world sheet has a total of eleven (11) dimensions (4 visible space-time dimensions, 3 quark colors, 3 genecolors [generations], and one colorlessness dimension).

The graph below is the summary of above concepts

- Q: How can this space-time world sheet make up with or by two donuts? Can these 11 dimensions be visualized in terms of geometry instead of quark colors?

A: First, a garden hose is a donut. When we wind this garden hose into a ball, it actually form another donut.

Second, a garden hose (or a donut) has (or needs) 7 dimensions. A garden hose has two spaces, and they cannot know each other.**Every point**on the garden hose needs**two sets**of coordinates. For observer standing outside the garden hose, he sees a point on the garden hose with a set of coordinates (Xe, Ye, Ze). The**same point**viewed from the inner space of the garden hose has (or must use) a new set of coordinates (Xi, Yi, Zi). Then, the empty space around the garden hose is not part of the garden hose world sheet, and it has no coordinate.**All points**of this empty space cannot be**distinguished**among one another, that is, they can be viewed as the same point. However, this empty space point must also be one dimension, E (nothingness). Thus, a garden hose (or a donut) has (or must have) 7 dimensions.

Third, when this garden hose winds itself into a donut, the external coordinates further divides into two sets (Xei, Yei, Zei) and (Xee, Yee, Zee). This garden hose world sheet now has (or needs) 10 dimensions -- (Xi, Yi, Zi), (Xei, Yei, Zei), (Xee, Yee, Zee), and E (nothingness).

Fourth, the above garden hose world sheet is a static world sheet. On the contrary, the time quanta is a dynamic garden hose, and it has a clearly defined moving direction. This must be also a dimension, T the ordinary time.

Finally, the space-time world sheet has (or needs) 11 dimensions.- (Xee, Yee, Zee) and T are ordinary 4 sapce-time dimensions.
- (Xei, Yei, Zei) are three generations (genecolors).
- (Xi, Yi, Zi) are three quark colors.
- E (nothingness) is pure vacuum, the Nothingness or Colorlessness.

- Q: Why should the time quanta be like a garden hose?

A:

The Schrodinger equation has the space symmetry. When Dirac rewrote it into two first order equations, he predicted the anti-particles. If (of course , it was a**big if**) Schrodinger equation also has time symmetry, the imaginary time must be introduced. Again, if (another**big if**) time is a quanta, it cannot be reduced to zero, a continuous point, that is, the origin of time sheet must have a hole. The graph on the left shows that time quanta must be like a garden hose. How about these two**big if**? The theory developed by these two**big if**has worked out very well, not only makes contact with the established physics but makes many more predictions and connections.

- Q: Regardless of what prequarks really are, they form a great notation system for quark model. But, what is the benefit to have a new notation system for an old model?

A: One of the 11 dimension of the space-time world sheet is E (nothingness) which is not clearly identified by and with Quark Model, but the Vacutron (the vacuum, the nothingness) clearly represents it in Prequark Superstring model. - Q: Can we, then, reduce Prequark system (V, A) to a simpler binary (0, 1) system?

A: Vacutron is identical to**0**. However, Angultron is a bit more complicated than**1**. Angultron is a trisect**ing**angle. It will take forever to trisect an angle. Thus, Angultron is a dynamic process which causes everybody's**head spin**. Very funny, we do call it**spin**. When this spin h(bar) moves with light speed**in time**, it expresses electric charge. When a superstring lays on 2 or 3 of them, that superstring becomes a particle. The residual binding energy (resulted from mixing angles) of those prequarks is expressed as**mass**, although the mass of prequarks cannot be defined. - Q:What are new in Prequark Superstring theory comparing to the other theories?

A:- Quark has internal structure, made of prequarks.
- Quark colors are attributes of prequark seats which have SU(3) color symmetry. Observable quark color is not an intrinsic quality of quark but a result of quantum collapse.
- Quark generations are new color charges.
- Superstring theory does not know the internal structure of quark, but Prequark theory does.
- The prequark representation of proton and neutron has the possibility to be a base for building a Turing computer according to Conway's theory, that is, prequark theory could make a new breakthrough on the issue of the rise of biological life in terms of physics laws.

- Q: Can Prequark Superstring Theory be shown in a simple graphic way?

A:====> ## Quark as Prequark Superstrings

- I: Prequark Representations
- II: Examples of Prequark Chromodynamics
- III: Proton's stability and its decay mode
- IV: Experimental evidence
- V: Prequark Superstring Model gives rise to biological life
- VI: Why Prequark Superstring Model?
- Frequently Asked Questions