Our universe possesses only one history, but there are many possible paths for its evolution. There are many different sets of solution to either General Relativity equations or the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Thus, the history of our universe could have been otherwise, and in fact the future of our universe is indeed uncertain. This simple fact points out that there is other possible universe coexist with ours, the actual manifested one. Those possible universes are as real as ours but do not actually possess (real) time, space, and mass. Thus, we can draw three conclusions.
All physics laws are related to time in one way or another. The laws of quantum physics do not have time symmetry but only have CPT (Charge, Parity and Time) symmetry. The laws of General Relativity cause the curvature of space-time. The laws of Thermodynamics give rise to the direction of time. Thus, all physics laws must break down in this timeless world. This timeless world (the Immortal Sphere) must have a set of its own laws which are laws of initial conditions at and before the Creation (Big Bang).
Per Einstein's first postulate of Special Relativity, laws of nature must have the same formula in all points of universe. Thus, the difference from point to point in the universe is not and cannot be caused by laws of nature but by a local condition. At the point of the beginning of universe, the local condition is the only condition. But, this only condition can be the manifestation from a set of many (or infinite) possible initial conditions. Thus, there can be a few cases.
The symmetry partners do not need to be identical. As a round CD disk, it has a perfect symmetry along its center axis. Now, if we chip off a very small chunk from the edge of the disk, this small chunk breaks its symmetry, and it is a symmetry partner of that defective CD disk. They two together form a symmetry, and they are symmetry partners of that symmetry. Zero and infinity form a symmetry. This zero-infinity symmetry is the definition of timelessness and immortality. This point is clearly described in Chapter IV of The Divine Constitution. I am now quoting a few paragraphs.
Universe was not created in time but with time. Since there is no free lunch because of all conservation laws of nature, even God cannot create something from nothing unless nothingness contains an infinite number of something.
The physical transformation of timelessness to time is a process that transforms infinity to finite or a process that transforms Nothing to Something. This time creation process is clearly described in my books, Super Unified Theory (1984); Truth, Faith, and Life (1990); and The Divine Constitution (1992)
For the infinity to finite transformation process, I am quoting a few paragraphs from Chapter X of The Divine Constitution.
"On the other hand, the concepts of time and space in prequark model are defined in physics mainly in terms of operational definition, meaning by being able to measure these variables without the concern of where and how these variables arise. From a theological view point, both time and space are undefined, meaningless null words. Where and how do time and space arise?
"No doubt, God creates time, then space manifests itself as the result of this flowing time [according to Equation Zero]. but, How? How does God create time?
"As I stated before, there is another infinity, the uncountable infinity which is a much higher infinity than the countable infinity. Can this uncountable infinity be transformed into finite?
"Infinities have one very important characteristic, softness. All finite numbers are very rigid. Three is larger than two. Three trillion is larger than three trillion minus one. On the other hand, infinity is very soft. Infinity plus one trillion is still infinity. We can even compress an infinite amount of a thing into infinity but will not increase its size. Thus, this characteristic of softness must manifest in some ways in the mortal universe.
"Softness, as defined above, really means absoluteness; no amount of external force can either increase or decrease its size. Surprisingly, relativity also means softness according to the Relativity Theory; both space and time can be compressed or stretched. ...
"Uncountable infinity is clearly defined in mathematics; it can be represented with the tail of the number Pi (3.14159...). There is an uncountable infinite number of digits in the tail of Pi. Thus, to transform uncountable infinity to finite is the same as to square or triangle a circle. The order of symmetry of a unit circle (2 Pi) is infinite, but it is finite for a square (four) or a triangle (three).
"This squaring a circle problem is now at least two thousand years old, and we now know that it cannot be accomplished by using only a compass and a straight edge. The compass and straight edge are rigid tools and can never probe the region of softness. Nonetheless, a circle can be transformed into a triangle with a soft (uniformly moving) compass which is Archimedes spiral (see Super Unified Theory for details, and see the figure below).
"Obviously, only a dynamical moving compass (Archimedes' spiral) can transform the character of softness of uncountable infinity into finite, and the projection of this Archimedes' spiral is a time cone. In other words, time is created by this uncountable infinity to finite transformation. Thus, time retains the character of softness, and this softness character of time is described in the Relativity Theories (page 145, The Divine Constitution).
For the Nothingness to Something transformation process, a concept of Ghost Partner must be introduced. This concept of ghost partner is clearly described in Chapter IV of my book Truth, Faith, and Life. In short, time cannot be created unless a ghost time (imaginary time) is also created simultaneously.
In the history of physics, the idea of imaginary time was used only as a useful computational procedure to compute bubble nucleation in false vacuum states, especially in states during the inflationary period. In short, this Euclidean technique (i.e. imaginary time for computation) is only a computational procedure but does not recognize that time is imaginary in essence. On the other hand, the concept of ghost partner in my Super Unified Theory demands the existence of imaginary time which is as real as real time in essence. In summary, the uncountable infinity to finite transformation gives rise to a time cone. The nothingness to something transformation points out that the imaginary time is as real as real time.
That the Newtonian physics sees time and space are two variables which differ in essence. On the contrary, General relativity demands a linkage and a connection among mass, space and time. Thus, time can no longer be arbitrary but must be defined by mass and space, such as the curvature of space-time. In Special Relativity, there could exist no absolute standard of time, and all time measurements are made relative to the motion of the observer. Thus, there is no preferred cosmic time in Special Relativity. On the other hand, in general relativity there is a preferred absolute cosmic time which is defined with the total mass of our universe.
In recent years, the development of Quantum Cosmology has regarded time as being truly like space in the ultimate quantum gravitational environment of the Big Bang. This approach goes one step beyond General Relativity which merely demands a linkage between space and time, and the conventional picture of time melts away and time becomes indistinguishable from space as the effects of the quantum gravitational environment is felt.
From these two concepts (a. there is imaginary time; b. time and space are indistinguishable in a quantum gravitational environment), I proposed a Time-Space equation in 1979, long before the recent development of Quantum Cosmology. This equation was discussed in detail in my book Super Unified Theory published in 1984.
Equation Zero links time and space in a precise manner. The ghost - real field N gives rise to 64 subspaces. Equation O' is a selection rule. When a subspace has N^2 = +/- 3, then this subspace is a true space (vacuum) the same as the space of General Relativity. When N^2 = +/- 1, this subspace is, in fact, a particle. Equation O' gives rise to 48 fundamental particles which are the direct consequence of Equation zero. The graphic representation of Equation zero is as the figure on the left. It is, in fact, a ball with two holes.
Now, time and space are no longer defined only in terms of operational definition. Time is the result of a transformation which transforms uncountable infinity to finite, and space is the direct consequence of this flowing time and is defined with Equation zero. But, how does mass manifest?
The mass of elementary particles are constants of nature. Any slight deviation from their current values, the states of our universe will be entirely different, and the lives as we know of will never arise. But, why are there constant of nature?
This universe consists of two parts --- computable and uncomputable. The computable part of universe is always algorithmically compressible. The uncomputable part consist of infinities. Today, mathematicians recognize two infinities, countable and uncountable. Both of these infinities must be transformed into finite in order to give rise to a perceivable universe. The uncountable infinity manifests as time. The countable infinity also must manifest as some constants of nature in order to give rise to an algorithmically compressible universe. This transformation is accomplished by trisecting angles. It takes a countable steps to trisect any angle (AOB) according to the figure on the left, that is, the countable infinity is transformed into finite via a trisected angle, the Angultron. This is also the reason why it takes countable infinite steps to trisect an angle with straight edge and compass. The consequences of this trisecting process are giving rise to the followings.
Today, there is a generation problem in theoretical physics. How many particles of a similar type must be? I discussed this issue in my book The Divine Constitution.
"... although currently only three families (generations) of elementary particles are discovered, the Standard Model does not provide a theoretical framework for this trisecting phenomenon. Fortunately, these trisected quark generation are affirmed by two independent studies. From cosmology, the helium is the most abundant of the nuclei synthesized by Big Bang; thus its quantity can be measured with the greatest accuracy. The observed data suggests there are at most four generations of elementary particles. From elementary particle physics, after we are able to produce W- and Z-bosons in large quantity, their decaying paths can be observed and their decaying rate can be measured with the greatest accuracy. Today, the observed data virtually rules out the possibility of the fourth generation particles." (page 144, The Divine Constitution.
In fact, the number of generations of elementary particles can be derived theoretically from the ghost-real space-time geometry. Equation zero gives rise to 64 subspaces. With Eq. (2), only 48 subspaces can manifest into particles; 24 of them are anti-particles. Because the space is trisected into three seats in the Prequark Chromodynamics, only 8 elementary particles can be generated with three seats for each generation (2 quarks with three colors each [=6] and 2 leptons). Thus, only three generations of particle can ever exist, no more nor less, period. This is as simple as 1, 2, or 3 because 24/8 = 3.
All lives must process information, that is, a universal computer must be imbedded in their structure. All biological lives must have mass, that is, a universal computer must be imbedded in (or constructed from) matter (or elementary particles).
When totality (T) is divided into P1 and P2, three things (T, P1, P2) are created because totality is indivisible, and P1, P2 are mutual immanent to each other. That is, if T is indivisible, then T must remain after a process divides T into parts. This concept is very bizarre according to the traditional sciences. However, it is a very common phenomena in the everyday life. For example, family is indivisible. When a death process divides a family into deceased and survivors, the family remains. When kids marry out, and it divides a family into two families, but the family remains. When divorce divides a family which separate man and woman, the family remains.
The indivisibility is the foundation (or source) of creation process. Only via the indivisibility, totality can create something from nothing --- P1, P2 were created while T remains unchanged. This indivisibility appears in nature everywhere. The following pages address it from different aspects.
The followings form the law of creation:
The interaction of real time and ghost time gives rise to Equation Zero which creates the followings:
This is, in fact, a ball to donut transformation. Two holes were punched on the ball of totality.
The indivisibility of totality gives rise to arithmetics in following ways:
The diagram below are creation (symmetry breaking) and unification processes.
The totality symmetry breaks into:
The unifications in physics were going from the bottom up. The current prevailing mainstream theories:
Theorem zero: If E - H = zero, then ST can be transformed to a topological ball with H number of holes on the ball surface.
Definition A: If system T obeys theorem zero, then T is indivisible.
Law of creation: If T is indivisible, T can create something from nothing.
I call this creation process Unilogy, and it is clearly described in my book Super Unified Theory.
Definition B: If system T is not created by any other system, T is a self.
That is, self arises itself and can be the first principle.
Theorem S: Nothingness (zero) is a self.
This is a ball to donut transformation process, which is the creation process, and which is foundations of:
That is, laws of physics, of life, of mathematics and of creation are isomorphic to one another.
The above can be stated in another way as follow:
If I create a +1 energy (matter) from nothingness, a -1 energy (ghost) must be created at the same time in order for nothingness remains to be nothingness. Topologically, we can see the above process (creating something from nothing) as matter and ghost form a ring (or a donut) with the nothingness in the middle.
Law of Creation 1': If B is created by a "creating something from nothing process," B must be a topological torus (donut).
Theorem 1': There are infinite Bs in nothingness.
A four color theorem was proven. Here are two seven color theorems.
Theorem 2': With 7 and only 7 colors, all donuts can be distinguished.
Theorem 3': If a system can be described with 7 and 7 colors only, that system must be a topological donut.
Theorem 4': If a system is a topological donut, it is created from nothingness.
The diagram below is another view of the creation process.
This chapter can be summarized with a time machine.